Understanding Scleroderma: Symptoms and Causes

by | Oct 25, 2023 | Blog

Have you ever experienced unexplained tightening of the skin or noticed the appearance of small red spots on your body? These could be early signs of scleroderma, a rare autoimmune disease that affects the skin, connective tissues, and internal organs. Understanding the symptoms and causes of this condition is crucial for timely diagnosis and effective management.

Scleroderma is believed to result from a combination of factors, including an environmental trigger and problems with the body’s immune system. It can cause the overproduction of collagen, leading to the thickening and tightening of the skin. As the disease progresses, it can also affect the digestive system, blood vessels, and various internal organs.

If you or someone you know is living with scleroderma, this article will provide invaluable insights to help navigate the challenges and better understand this complex autoimmune disease.

What is Scleroderma?

Scleroderma is a rare autoimmune disease that causes abnormal growth of connective tissue, leading to skin thickening and the potential involvement of internal organs. This chronic condition affects various parts of the body, including the skin, blood vessels, digestive tract, and even vital organs such as the lungs and heart.

The hallmark symptom of scleroderma is the tightening and hardening of the skin, which can result in limited mobility and discomfort. This tightening can occur on different areas of the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, face, and limbs. In some cases, individuals may also experience Raynaud’s phenomenon, where the small blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, causing color changes and numbness.

One of the challenges of scleroderma is that its symptoms and complications can vary widely from person to person. Some individuals may have mild skin involvement that primarily affects their appearance, while others may experience significant internal organ problems. The severity and progression of the disease can also vary, with some individuals experiencing a slow progression and others facing more rapid complications.

Scleroderma is believed to be caused by a combination of factors, including genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Research suggests that an abnormal immune system response plays a key role in the development of the disease. Additionally, exposure to certain chemicals, infections, or medications may contribute to the development of scleroderma in susceptible individuals.

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing scleroderma and minimizing its impact on daily life. Treatment options for scleroderma aim to control symptoms, slow disease progression, and manage complications. These may include medications to suppress the immune system, improve blood flow, or address specific organ involvement. Physical and occupational therapies may also be recommended to improve mobility and manage symptoms related to skin tightness.

What are the Symptoms?

  • Skin Changes

One of the hallmark symptoms of scleroderma is skin thickening and hardening. This usually begins in the fingers and can spread to other parts of the body. The skin may also become tight, shiny, and difficult to move. In severe cases, individuals may experience intense itching, pain, and open sores.

  • Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Many people with scleroderma experience Raynaud’s phenomenon, a condition where the small blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress. This causes the affected areas to turn white or blue and feel numb or painful.

  • Digestive Problems

Scleroderma can affect the digestive system, causing a range of symptoms such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), acid reflux, bloating, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. In some cases, it can also lead to malabsorption of nutrients and weight loss.

  • Joint Stiffness and Pain

Many individuals with scleroderma experience joint stiffness, particularly in the hands and fingers. This can make it challenging to perform daily activities and may be accompanied by joint pain and swelling.

  • Shortness of Breath and Fatigue

When scleroderma affects the lungs, it can cause shortness of breath, a persistent cough, and reduced exercise tolerance. Fatigue is also common and can significantly impact a person’s quality of life. It’s important to note that the symptoms of scleroderma can vary widely from person to person. Some may experience only mild symptoms, while others may have more severe manifestations, including involvement of internal organs such as the heart, lungs, or kidneys.

Causes and Risk Factors

Scleroderma is a complex autoimmune disease with no known definite cause. However, several factors have been identified as possible contributors to the development of this condition. Understanding these potential causes and risk factors can provide valuable insights into the origins of scleroderma.

Genetic Predisposition

Research suggests that there may be a genetic predisposition to scleroderma. Certain genetic variations and mutations are believed to increase the likelihood of developing the disease. Although specific genes have not been definitively identified as the cause of scleroderma, studies have shown that individuals with a family history of the condition have a higher risk of developing it themselves.

Dysfunction of the Immune System

Scleroderma is fundamentally an autoimmune disease, meaning the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues. In the case of scleroderma, the immune system targets the connective tissues and blood vessels, leading to inflammation and subsequent tissue damage. The exact reasons behind this immune system malfunction are still being investigated, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Environmental Triggers

Certain environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing scleroderma. Exposure to chemicals, such as organic solvents, silica, and certain drugs, has been linked to the onset of the disease. Additionally, exposure to certain infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus, may trigger an abnormal immune response and contribute to the development of scleroderma.

Hormonal Factors

Evidence suggests that certain hormonal imbalances may play a role in the development of scleroderma. Hormonal changes, such as those occurring during pregnancy, have been associated with an increased risk of developing the condition. Furthermore, women are more likely to be affected by scleroderma than men, indicating a potential hormonal influence on the disease.

While the exact causes of scleroderma remain elusive, it is likely that a combination of genetic predisposition, immune system dysfunction, environmental triggers, and hormonal factors contribute to its development. Further research is necessary to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying this rare autoimmune disease. By identifying these potential causes and risk factors, healthcare professionals can better manage and predict the course of the disease, ultimately improving the quality of life for individuals with scleroderma.

Understanding Systemic Sclerosis

Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that primarily affects the skin, connective tissues, and internal organs. It is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the excessive production and accumulation of collagen, a fibrous type of protein, leading to skin thickening and organ involvement. This section will provide insights into the concept of systemic sclerosis and its relationship to scleroderma.

What is Systemic Sclerosis?

Systemic sclerosis, also known as systemic scleroderma, is a group of rare diseases that involve an immune system problem and abnormal collagen deposition throughout the body. It is believed to result from a combination of factors, including genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Systemic sclerosis can impact multiple organs, including the skin, blood vessels, digestive tract, lungs, heart, and kidneys.

Skin and Internal Organ Involvement

In systemic sclerosis, the thickening and tightening of the skin are often the first visible signs. This can manifest as a tightening of the facial skin, followed by involvement of other parts of the body such as the upper arms, lower legs, and trunk. Additionally, systemic sclerosis can affect internal organs, leading to a range of complications.

Among the internal organs commonly affected are the lungs, where inflammation and scarring can occur, causing lung tissue damage and potentially resulting in pulmonary hypertension. The heart can also be affected, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath and, in severe cases, heart failure. The digestive system may experience difficulties in the movement of food, resulting in restricted blood flow, excess fluid, and digestive problems such as bouts of cramping.

Diagnosis and Management

Diagnosing systemic sclerosis involves a comprehensive medical evaluation that usually includes a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes, a skin or organ biopsy. Early detection and timely intervention are crucial for managing the condition effectively.

While there is no known cure for systemic sclerosis, treatment options focus on alleviating symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing complications. This commonly includes medication to address specific organ involvement, physical therapy to maintain mobility and exercise tolerance, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding smoking, managing stress, and protecting the skin from extreme temperatures.

Diagnosis and Medical Evaluation

The diagnosis of scleroderma involves a comprehensive medical evaluation, which helps to identify the disease and determine its severity. Here’s a closer look at the diagnostic process and the evaluations involved:

Clinical Assessment

During the initial visit, the doctor will review the patient’s medical history and perform a physical examination. The examination may include an assessment of skin changes, joint mobility, and organ involvement. Assessment tools such as the modified Rodnan skin score may be used to evaluate the extent of skin involvement.

Blood Tests

Blood tests are crucial for diagnosing scleroderma. These tests can help identify specific antibodies associated with the disease, such as anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-centromere antibodies (ACA), or anti-topoisomerase antibodies (ATA). Elevated levels of specific antibodies can provide valuable diagnostic information and help classify the type of scleroderma.

Imaging Studies

Certain imaging studies may be used to assess internal organ involvement. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans can reveal lung abnormalities such as interstitial lung disease, which is common in systemic sclerosis. Other imaging tests, such as echocardiograms or pulmonary function tests, may also be performed to assess heart and lung function.

Skin Biopsy

A skin biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis of scleroderma. A small sample of skin tissue is taken and examined under a microscope to assess for characteristic changes, such as thickening or increased collagen deposition.

Rheumatologist Consultation

In many cases, a rheumatologist, a specialist in autoimmune diseases, will be involved in the diagnostic process. They will evaluate the patient’s symptoms, physical findings, and test results to confirm the diagnosis and guide further treatment.

Multidisciplinary Approach

Scleroderma often requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving various specialists such as dermatologists, rheumatologists, pulmonologists, and cardiologists. This collaborative approach helps ensure comprehensive evaluation and management of the disease, addressing both the skin and internal organ involvement.

Treatment Options

When it comes to managing scleroderma, there are various treatment options available that can help improve symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. The treatment plan for an individual with scleroderma is often personalized, taking into account the specific symptoms and severity of the condition. Here are some of the treatment options commonly used:


  • Immunosuppressants: These medications help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the body. They can be effective in controlling symptoms and preventing further damage.
  • Corticosteroids: These anti-inflammatory drugs are sometimes prescribed to help reduce swelling and improve joint mobility. However, long-term use may lead to side effects, so they are typically used in low doses and for short periods.
  • Calcium channel blockers: These medications are commonly prescribed to manage Raynaud’s phenomenon, a common symptom of scleroderma characterized by restricted blood flow in the fingers and toes.
  • Proton pump inhibitors: If scleroderma affects the digestive system, these medications can help reduce excess stomach acid and manage symptoms such as acid reflux.

Physical and Occupational Therapy

  • Range-of-motion exercises: These exercises aim to maintain or restore joint flexibility and prevent stiffness.
  • Strength training: Building muscle strength can help individuals better manage daily activities and maintain independence.
  • Hand exercises: These exercises focus on maintaining or improving hand function, which can be affected by scleroderma.

Lifestyle Modifications

  • Balanced diet: Eating a nutritious and well-balanced diet can support overall health and help manage symptoms. Some individuals with scleroderma have specific dietary restrictions, such as avoiding foods that trigger acid reflux or managing a diet low in salt to help control high blood pressure.
  • Skin care: Proper skin care is essential for individuals with scleroderma, as the condition can cause skin dryness and tightness. Regularly moisturizing the skin and protecting it from excessive sun exposure can help.
  • Stress management: Emotional distress and stress can worsen symptoms in some individuals. Engaging in activities that promote relaxation, such as meditation or yoga, can be beneficial.

These treatment options may be used alone or in combination, depending on the specific needs of the individual. It’s important to work closely with healthcare professionals experienced in treating scleroderma to develop a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the physical and emotional aspects of the condition.

Living with Scleroderma 

Living with scleroderma can present unique challenges, but there are various strategies and lifestyle adjustments that can help individuals cope and improve their quality of life.

Managing Symptoms:

  • Work closely with your healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan to manage your symptoms effectively.
  • Follow a healthy and balanced diet, ensuring an adequate intake of nutrients and hydration to support overall well-being.
  • Engage in regular physical activity and exercise, as it can help improve flexibility, circulation, and overall strength.
  • Practice stress management techniques, such as mindfulness, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in activities that bring joy and relaxation.
  • Protect your skin from excessive sun exposure and extreme temperatures, as these can trigger flare-ups and exacerbate symptoms.
  • Use moisturizers and gentle skincare products to alleviate dryness and promote comfort.

Seeking Support:

  • Connect with a support group or find online communities of individuals living with scleroderma. Sharing experiences and tips can provide valuable emotional support and practical advice.
  • Consider seeking professional counseling or therapy to address any emotional distress or mental health struggles related to living with a chronic illness.
  • Communicate openly with your friends, family, and loved ones about your condition, helping them understand the challenges you face and how they can support you.

Adapting Daily Activities:

  • Make modifications to your daily routine and activities to accommodate any physical limitations caused by scleroderma.
  • Prioritize rest and take regular breaks to conserve energy and prevent fatigue.
  • Use adaptive devices and tools to assist with tasks that may be more challenging due to joint stiffness or limitations in hand dexterity.
  • Seek assistance when needed and communicate your needs to others, whether at home, work or in social settings.

Remember, everyone’s experience with scleroderma is different, so finding the strategies and coping mechanisms that work best for you is crucial. By focusing on self-care, seeking support, and making necessary adjustments, it’s possible to live a fulfilling life while managing scleroderma.


Q: What are the early symptoms of scleroderma?

A: The early symptoms of scleroderma can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. However, some common early signs include Raynaud’s phenomenon, which is characterized by the discoloration of fingers and toes in response to cold or stress. Other early symptoms may include tightness and thickening of the skin, especially in the fingers and face, and difficulty swallowing. It’s important to note that these symptoms can develop gradually and may be mistaken for other conditions initially. If you experience any of these symptoms, it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis.

Q: Can scleroderma affect internal organs?

A: Yes, scleroderma can affect internal organs. In some cases, scleroderma can cause damage to the blood vessels, digestive tract, and other organs such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys. This can lead to various complications, including pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and renal problems. It’s essential to regularly monitor organ function and seek appropriate medical care to manage these potential complications.

Q: Is there a cure for scleroderma?

A: Currently, there is no cure for scleroderma. However, treatment options are available to help manage the symptoms, slow down disease progression, and improve quality of life. The treatment approach may vary depending on the individual and the specific manifestations of the disease. It often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medication, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and lifestyle modifications. It’s crucial to work closely with a healthcare team specialized in treating scleroderma to develop an individualized treatment plan.

Q: How is scleroderma diagnosed?

A: Diagnosing scleroderma involves a comprehensive medical evaluation, which may include a physical examination, review of symptoms, and various diagnostic tests. These tests may include blood tests to assess autoantibodies associated with scleroderma, imaging studies to evaluate organ involvement, and skin biopsies. In some cases, additional consultations with specialists, such as rheumatologists or dermatologists, may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial for initiating appropriate management strategies and preventing further complications.

Note: The answers provided in this FAQ section are for informational purposes only and should not replace medical advice. If you suspect you may have scleroderma or have any concerns, please consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.



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